- Workers 4-5mm long.
- Queens 15mm long.
- Dark brown-black in colour.
- 1 small segment at waist point (pedicel).
- No sting present.
- Queens over winter in soil. The eggs are laid in late spring and the larvae hatch 3–4 weeks later.
- Larvae feed on secretions from the queen’s salivary glands until the first worker ants emerge.
- Worker ants continue with larval care, nest building and food foraging.
- Fertile males are produced later in the season.
- Foraging worker ants follow well–defined trails around food sources. Sweet foods are preferred but high protein foods will also be taken.
- Swarming characteristics – mating between queens and fertile males takes place on the wing during late summer and the males perish after mating.
- Nest locations – often outdoors in soil and below paving slabs on the sunny side of buildings. Nest locations can be identified by the presence of finely powdered soil around nest exit holes.
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- Workers 1.5–2mm long, yellow–brown with brown abdomen.
- Males 3mm long, black and winged.
- Queens 3.5–6mm long, dark red in colour with wings.
- Black eyes. 2 small segments at the pedicel.
- Multi–queen colonies.
- Swarming can take place at any time of the year.
- Winged adults seldom fly so rarely seen. Wings are soon lost after mating.
- Well–defined trails are laid which are often associated with heating systems. Feeds indoors on high protein foods — meat, fats, blood, dead insects, etc.
- Swarming characteristics — new colonies are often formed through nests that have been disturbed e.g., as a result of insecticide spray treatments. Each queen produces up to 3500 eggs in its lifetime.
- Nest locations — deep seated in cavities in heated buildings. Often found in hospitals. Associated with humid conditions. Colonies can range from a few dozen to 300,000 individuals.